admiral أميرالبحار, amīr al-bihār commander of the seas
adobe الطوب aṭ-ṭūb, the bricks
albacore الباكورة al-bakūra, perhaps from bakūr, premature
albatross (or algatross) الغطاس al-γaṭṭās (or al-ghaṭṭās), the diver
alchemy الكيمياء al-alkīmiyā7, from Greek khēmia, khēmeia, art of transmuting metals
alcohol الغول – الكحول in the literature of late European alchemy, the quintessence of an earthly substance. See kohl in this list. The idea of "quintessences of earthly substances" and the use of "alcohol" to denote quintessences are developments in European alchemy in the 14th century. From the 1500s on, the denotation of "alcohol" narrowed down to "quintessence of wine" or "spirit of wine", i.e., ethanol, CH3CH2OH, as the term "alcool vini" (quintessence of wine) got shortened to "alcool" or "alcohol". The termalco(h)ol vini supplanted the original quinta essentia vini, 'fifth essence of wine'.
alcove قبة – طاقة al-qubba, the vault
alembic الإنبيق al-anbiq, still (the distillation device), from Greek ambix, stem ambik-, cup
algebra الجبر al-jabr, the restoring of missing parts. This word is reported to have entered Middle English in the sense of 'the setting of broken bones'. The modern mathematical sense comes from the title of a book, al-kitāb al-muxtaṣar fīḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing", by the 9th-century Muslim mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsa al-Xwārizmī. The appellation al-xwārizmī means literally "the Khwārizmian", referring to Khwārizm, now Khiva, in Uzbekistan. Another legacy of this mathematician is that his appellation gave rise to the word
algorism  see algorithm in this list.
algorithm or algorism al-xwārizmī, the Khwārizmian. Appellation of the Persian scientist, Muḥammad ibn Mūsa al-Xwārizmī, who wrote the first book on algebra. See algebra in this list.
alidade عضادة , عِضَادة . A surveying instrument.
alizarin from al-ʕaṣārah, the juice. A dye. العصارة
alkali القلي from qalā, to fry, to roast. 'Alkali' originally meant a saline substance derived from the ashes of plants.
almanac المناخal-manāx (or al-manākh), "the climate", possibly from Greek almenichiakon, calendar
alfalfa al-fisfisa, fresh fodder 
alkanet From the Arabic word الحنة '"al-hinna'"=the henna. 
amalgam الملغم al-malgham. 
amber amber/anbar, yellow 
aniline نيلة – صبغ النيل al-nili, from Persian and Sanskrit
arsenal دار الصناعة dār aṣ-ṣināʕa, house of manufacturing
artichoke الخرشوف al-xurshūf or from ardi chawki meaning 'land thorn'
assassin from حشاشين ḥashshāshīn, those who use hashish (cannabis resin).
attar itr/utur, perfume,aroma. 
aubergine from الباذنجان al-bādhinjān, ultimately from Persian bâdinjân.
azimuth السموت as-sumūt, the paths
azure لازورد lazeward, from Persian lazhvard
barding (archaic term for horse armour) bardaʿah, packsaddle -any of various pieces of defensive armor for a horse covering, from Persian.
benzoin لبان جاوي labān jāwī, "frankincense of Java". Benzoin is an organic chemical solvent extracted from a resin of an Asian tree.
bezoar bazahr, from Persian.
burnous/burnoose برنوس burnūs, from Latin byrrhus
borax بورق buraq, from Persian.
caliber قالب qâlib, 'mould', possibly from Greek.
camphor كافور kafur. 
candy قند qandi, possibly a loanword.
carat qirat, from Greek
caraway كراوية karāwiya
carmine ultimately from Sanskrit krmi-ja. See 'kermes' below.
carob خرّوب xarrūb, (1) locust; (2) carob bean
carrack qarāqīr plural of qurqur
checkmate shah māt, from Persian
chemistry see alchemy in this list
cipher صفر ṣifr, zero
civet zaba’d 
coffee قهوة qahwa, itself possibly from Kefa, Ethiopia, where the plant originated.
cotton قطن quṭun
crimson qirmizī, of the dye kermes, from Persian ghermez, red. See 'kermes' below.
curcuma From Arabic word kurkum =saffron, turmeric.
divan ديوان dīwān, from Persian.
dragoman ترجمان tarjumān, from Aramaic turgemānā, in turn from Akkadian.
elixir الإكسير al-'iksīr, (1) philosopher's stone; (2) medicinal potion. From Greek xērion, powder for drying wounds
emir أمير, amīr.
fustic الفسطيط أو الفستيق fosṭeeṭ, ultimately from Greek πιστακη pistakē, pistachio tree
garble γarbala, sift; ultimately from Latin cribellum, sieve
gauze qazz, in turn from Persian kazh (كژ) "raw silk".
gazelle غزال γazāl
gerbil See jerboa in this list. The word "gerbil" is a European created diminutive of "jerboa", but the words refer to distinct species.
ghoul غول γūl
giraffe زرافة zarāfa
harem حريم ḥarīm, forbidden thing or place
hashish حشيش ḥashīsh, grass
hazard الزهر az-zahr, chance, name of the pieces used in the game of 'nard,' or 'tawola.' It can also represent a type of flower.
henna حنة ḥinna
jar جرة jarrah, large earthen vase
jasmine from French. jasmin, , from Arabic yas(a)min.
jerboa جربوع jarbūʕ. See also gerbil in this list.
kermes قرمز qirmiz perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit krmi-ja, worm-produced
kohl الكحل al-kuḥl, kohl. Powdered stibnite, used for millennia to decorate the eyes and as an eye medicine. (Stibnite is an ore of the element antimony.)
lemon الليمون, laymūn and Persian leemo (ليمو)
lilac from Arabic lilak, from Pers. lilak, variant of nilak "bluish," from nil "indigo" 
lime Arabic limah "citrus fruit," a back-formation or a collective noun from limun "lemon"
loofah from the Egyptian Arabic word lūfa.
lute العود al-ʕūd, "the oud", a forerunner of the guitar.
macrame miqrama, embroidered veil
magazine maxāzin, (or makhāzin), storehouses,
mascara uncertain origin; possibly from maskhara "buffoon" or from an unknown language. In modern Arabic maskhara means to ridicule
massage uncertain whether ultimately from either Arabic massa, to stroke, or from Latin massa, dough
mattress مطرح matrah, (1) spot where something is thrown down; (2) mat, cushion
mocha مخا al-muxā (or al-mukhā), city of Mocha, Yemen
mohair مخير muxayyar, having the choice
monsoon موسم mawsim, season
mummy موميا mūmiyyā, embalmed corpse (ultimately from Persian).
muslin derived from the name of the Iraqi city of Mosul, where cotton fabric was manufactured
nadir نظير naẓīr, parallel or counterpart
nucha (anatomical term for 'nape of the neck') نخاع ، منخع , nape of the neck. Via Medieval Latin, from Arabic nuḫā', marrow, spinal cord.
nunation from the Arabic name of the 'n' sound. Medical term: overly frequent or abnormal use (as in stammering) of the sound of the letter n.
orange From Arabic word naranj, from Sanskrit via Persian.
popinjay ببفا babaγā Parrot.
qat / khat قات kat The plant Catha edulis.
racquet or 'racket' راحة rāḥah, palm of the hand
realgar rahj al-ghar, a mineral
ream (quantity of sheets of paper) رزمة rizma, bale, bundle
roc rukhkh, possibly from Persian.
safari from Swahili safari, journey, in turn from Arabic safar.
safflower aṣfar, yellow.
saffron زعفران zaʕfarān (or za9farān), species of crocus plant bearing orange stigmas and purple flowers.
sash شاش shāsh, turban of muslin. See muslin in this list.
sequin sikka, die, coin
sherbet, sorbet, shrub, syrup شراب sharāb, a drink
soda perhaps from suwwāda, suwayd, or suwayda, a species of plant
sofa ṣuffa, stone ledge
sugar sukkar, sugar, ultimately from Sanskrit
sumac summāq, from Aramaic.
tabby (fabric) عتابي ʕattābī (9attābī), deriv. of (al-)ʕattābiyya, quarter of Baghdad where watered silk was first made, named after a prince, ʕattāb
tahini طحين ṭaḥīn, flour, which derives from the Arabic verb for "grind"
talc طلق ṭalq, from Persian.
tamarind تمر هندي tamr-hindī, date of India
tare tarḥa, a discard (something discarded)
tariff تعريفة taʕrīfa (or ta9rīfa), act of making known; notification
tazza طشت ṭašt, round, shallow, drinking cup made of metal. Amer. Heritage Dict.
typhoon a blend of Arabic Ṭūfān (ultimately from Greek) and the completely independent Cantonese word 'Taaîfung'.